Current Working Area
Programming PHP

Research & Links

Web Design Workshop - HTML5 CSS3 JS - JavaScript Workshop - JavaScript & jQuery - PHP & MySQL - Graphics Workshop - Game Creations - Film & Music Production - Charity

IDL Webdesign
PHP Testing Site

PHP - Wikipedia -
PHP Manual English php_manual_en.html (Single HTML file) - php-chunked-xhtml (Many HTML files)
Rasmus Lerdorf - Wikipedia - RL (born 22 November 1968) Greenlandic programmer with Canadian citizenship - created the PHP scripting language - TW 29.4K
Brendan Eich - Wikipedia - - created JavaScript - CEO of Mozilla Firefox - TW 30.8K
Bjarne Stroustrup - Wikipedia - created C++ - TW 5.2K
Computing Conversations: Rasmus Lerdorf Interview on Creating PHP - Rasmus Lerdorf On PHP - YouTube
How long does it take to learn basic PHP?
Apache HTTP Server - Wikipedia -
AMP - Wikipedia
Server-side scripting - Wikipedia
Content management system (CMS) - List of content management systems - Wikipedia
Common Gateway Interface - CGI - Wikipedia
PHP Pocket Reference - 2nd Edition - Rasmus Lerdorf
Learning JavaScript from PHP - a Comparison
Learning PHP, MySQL, JavaScript & CSS - Web Developers Cookbook - Robin Nixon -

* * * * * * * * * * * *

readwrite - TW 1.38M
Smashing Magazine - TW 774K - TW 688K
Erik Spiekermann - TW 285K
Abduzeedo - TW 222K - Twitter 116K
A List Apart - TW 95.3K
Christoph Spooner - TW 78.4K - Twitter 50.8K -
WebDesignDev - TW 46.3K - Twitter 14.6K
PHP VS Javascript? Which is better? - - Twitter 13.7K - Twitter 9.6K - Twitter 5.6K

15 Interesting Twitter Accounts for Web Designers to Follow
10 Twitter accounts every web designer should follow
17 Twitter Accounts A Web Designer Must Follow
102 Respected Designers You Should Follow On Twitter -

* * * * * * * * * * * *

Harvard University Cambridge (next to Boston), MA, USA - Web Development Summer 2012 - David J. Malan - 0 Building Dynamic Websites - 1 PHP1 - 2 PHP2 - 3 MVC XML - 4 SQL1 - 5 SQL2 - 6 JavaScript - 7 AJAX - 8 Secutity - 9 Scalability - YouTube - - TW 5.6K

The Best Way to Learn PHP

Philip and Alex's Guide to Web Publishing -

Designing with Web Standards (3rd Edition) - Jeffrey Zeldman (Author), Ethan Marcotte (Author)
Taking Your Talent to the Web - A Guide for the Transitioning Designer - - Jeffrey Zeldman - Wikipedia - About Jeffrey Zeldman - TW 325K -

PHP Usage Stats for January 2013
Usage of server-side programming languages for websites - W3Techs
Comparison of server-side JavaScript solutions - Node.js - Wikipedia

PhpStorm - Twitter 16K

Install and configure Apache, PHP and MySQL on Mac OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion


Get Apache, MySQL, PHP and phpMyAdmin working on OSX 10.9 Mavericks
Setting up PHP & MySQL on OS X Mavericks
Setup local web server with Apache and PHP on MacOS X Mavericks - Ole Michelsen
Installing phpMyAdmin on Mac OSX 10.9 Mavericks
Mac OS X Apache MySQL PHP PhpMyAdmin Set Up

Apache PHP MySQL SSL Installation

This line is written using HTML.

     <<< And this line should be written using PHP (watch it via page source) - but the file must end with .php not .html :-) - Try it now at our new PHP Testing Site and then let's learn it all together with us now :-)

♡ Welcome to our PHP Workshop ♡ :-)

Feroniba Ramin Hassani - 2014-3-29 20:18 Berlin - Germany :-)
Mac Developer Library - Shell Scripting Primer Terminal - Terminal - Wikipedia -

cd ~ (change directory) - user's home folder - write ~ option n
cd / - root directory pwd (print working directory) - shows path to actual folder
ls (list directory contents) - shows content of folder
clear - makes Terminal show your line as the only one
history - shows mumbered history of all entries
history -c - clears history

/etc/hosts - shows: Permission denied - unable to edit hosts file in terminal
Google Chrome could not connect to localhost - Chrome delete cookies didn't help
Installing Apache, PHP, and MySQL on Mac OS X Mavericks
/etc/apache2/httpd.conf - answers: -sh: /etc/apache2/httpd.conf: Permission denied
pico /etc/hosts - opens file

How to Open a PHP File

command+shift G > /etc/php.ini.default - open with Sublime text 2 or other editor

sudo apachectl start
sudo apachectl restart
sudo apachectl stop

localhost - <<< Apache writes: It works!

If localhost is not working, do
ln -s ~/Dropbox/website/php_testing_site.php ~/Sites/php_testing_site.php
chmod a+rx ~/Dropbox/website

localhost/~Feroniba/phpinfo.php -  <<< PHP works on localhost

If localhost is not working, do: sudo apachectl -t

MySQL - works >>> see System Preferences > MySQL > The MySQL server instance is working MySQL version
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -v
Password 0000

localhost/~Feroniba/phpmyadmin -  <<< phpMyAdmin works on localhost
username: root - password: 0000

SSL - Secure Sockets Layer - Transport Layer Security - Wikipedia Mac OS X SSL Certificate Installation
Mavericks Server Part 7: SSL Certificates - YouTube
For SSL change httpd.conf - find file > Finder Window > cmd+shift+G opens Go to the folder: enter /etc/apache2 (this starts with pribate/ - so better /etc/ finds another etc > apache2 - both httpd.conf files are the same files, seems :-) > httpd.conf - open file in editor - go to line ca. 490:
# Include conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf (# Include /private/etc/apache2/extra/httpd-ssl.conf) change to:
Include conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf (Include /private/etc/apache2/extra/httpd-ssl.conf)    <<< Don't do that - it stops working! Apache etc. will not work anymore!
Line 217 shoud be: Allow Override All - (instead of None - if it is None change it to All)
For more changes go Apache documentation

Then stop and start the local Apache server (why not restart?):
# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl stop
# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start

Test if it works:
Connect to the server with a web browser and select the https protocol, like this: ... maybe ... - (
Try your server’s IP address also, like this: - or
If it worked, the server will send the certificate to the browser to establish a secure connection.This makes the browser prompt you to accept the self-signed certificate.

To use PHP modules you installed as shared objects, you need to complete a few more steps.
First, copy the module you have built to the PHP extensions directory, which is probably
Then add the following line to your php.ini file: extension =
You will need to restart Apache after making changes to php.ini.

Install PEAR (PHP Extension and Application Repository) - PECL (PHP Extension Community Library) and other ...

PHP and MySQL Web Development

Fourth Edition - 2009

PHP and MySQL Web Development - - TW 2.8K - - TW 3.5K - PHP & MySQL Web Development - YouTube - Part 1 - Part 2

About PHP and MySQL Web Development

Contents at a Glance
Table of Contents - Index (p911)
Authors - Acknowledgements - Reader Services


p1 - Welcome - Introduction themes:
• Why you should read this book
• What you will be able to achieve using this book
• What PHP and MySQL are and why they’re great
• What’s changed in the latest versions of PHP and MySQL
• How this book is organized

How Is This Book Organized?
p9 - V Parts - I - Overview PHP with real-world examples like e-commerce sites etc. - II - Building MySQL database systems and connecting to the world via PHP - security and optimization - III - E-commerce and security - authenticating users - gather, transmit and store data - IV - Advanced PHP techniques - groups of functions useful for building websites - interaction with server and network - image generation - data and time manipulation - session variables - V - Building practical PHP and MySQL projects - real-world issues such as managing large projects and debugging - sample projects demonstrate power and versatility of PHP and MySQL

Soon, you’ll be able to join the many thousands of web developers who use these robust, powerful tools to easily build dynamic, real-time websites.

I - Using PHP

Chapter 1-7

1 - PHP Crash Course

p13 - Chapter overview PHP syntax and language constructs - learn PHP through real-life examples from website building - this should not be another PHP reference like the online manual - practice examples, change, manipulate, break, fix - via our online product example "Bob's Auto Parts" learn using variables, expressions, operators and precedence - boolean values - if else the ? : oprator - the switch statement - loop to generate repetitive HTML tables
Key topics: ...


Before You Begin: Accessing PHP

p14 - 1. Need access to web server with PHP installed - 2. Install PHP and MySQL (with Apache and SSL etc.) on computer - see Appendix A and CD-ROM

Creating a Sample Application: Bob’s Auto Parts

Sample examples download here - found at
Most common applications for server-side scripting is processing HTML forms - start learning PHP by implementing order form for "Bob's Auto Parts"

Creating the Order Form
Lesson 1.1 orderform.html - completed version - from downloaded Sample examples >>> go orderform1.html page 25 to see the task in process with processorder1.php

<form action="processorder1.php" method="post">

Created orderform1.html - processorder1.php will follow (page 25) to work dynamically :-)

Processing the Form
p16 - form action="processorder.php" - we will write the .php soon - URL will be loaded when customer clicks submit - data will be sent to URL via method="post" or "get" - tireqty, oilqty, and sparkqty will be used in .php - give your form fields meaningful names, not field23 etc. - adopt a coding standard for field names -

Lesson 1.2 processorder.php - or open .php file from localhost Apache with

Embedding PHP in HTML

echo ‘<p>Order processed.</p>’;
Watching it in the browser - shows no raw PHP - the PHP interpreter only sends the output, HTML - every browser can show it without understanding PHP. Example illustrates concept of server-side scripting in a nutshell - PHP has been interpreted and executed on the web server, as distinct from JavaScript and other client-side technologies interpreted and executed within a web browser on a user’s machine.
Now 4 types of text: HTML, PHP tags, PHP statements, whitespace - can add comments

PHP Tags
<?php and ?> are similar to HTML tags and are called PHP tags - browser recognizes inside PHP, outside HTML - with PHP tags you escape from HTML :-)
4 styles: • XML style: <?php ... ?> will be used in this book, it is the preferred PHP tag style - server administrator cannot turn it off, guarantees it will be available on all servers, important if writing applications that may be used on different installations - used in XML - recommended style
Short style: <? ... ?> - follows the style of a Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) processing instruction - need to enable the short_open_tag setting in your config file or compile PHP with short tags enabled - more info Appendix A - use not recommended - will not work in many environments as it is no longer enabled by default
Script style: <script language=’php’> echo ‘<p>Order processed.</p>’; </script> - may be used if editor has problems
ASP style: <% echo ‘<p> ... </p>’; %> - same as used in Active Server Pages (ASP) or ASP.NET - can use it if you have enabled the asp_tags configuration setting - by default, this tag style is disabled.

PHP Statements
between the PHP tags - statement:
echo ‘<p>Order processed.</p>’;
prints or echoes the string to the browser window - semicolon at end of statement - PHP separates statements via semicolon like languages separate sentences via periods - similar to C or Java etc. - leaving off semicolon is common syntax error but easy to find and correct.

Same as in HTML - PHP ignores it.

p20 - PHP supports C, C++, and shell script–style comments. Here C style multiline comment, should start /* and end */:
/* Author: Bob Smith
Last modified: April 10 */
Or single line C++ style starts with //:
echo ‘<p>Order processed./<p>’; // Start printing order
or in the shell script style:
echo ‘<p>Order processed./<p>’; # Start printing order
// here is a comment ?> here is not - after the PHP ending tag the comment does not continue, it ends with the tag, too

Adding Dynamic Content

p21 - Main reason using server-side scripting languages is to be able to provide dynamic content to a site’s users - This is an important application because content that changes according to users’ needs or over time will keep visitors coming back to a site. Example:

echo "<p>Order processed at ";
echo date('H:i, jS F Y');
echo "</p>";

Can also be written on one line, using the concatenation operator (.), as

echo "<p>Order processed at ".date('H:i, jS F Y')."</p>"; // add Y to processorder.php example :-)

Calling Functions
p22 - The function date () passes a string - date(‘H:i, jS F Y’) - inside is a pair of parantheses - content is the argument or parameter - it is calles the input of the function - generates the output results - Most of these functions need to have some data passed to them and return some data - PHP has an extensive library of functions

Using the date() Function
The date() function expects the argument you pass it to be a format string, representing the style of output you would like - date(‘H:i, jS F Y’) - H = hour 24 hour format  with leading zeros - i = minutes with leading zeros, j = day without leading zeros, s = suffix th - f = full name of month - Y = year - more in chapter 21 -

Accessing Form Variables

p23 - Point of using order form is to collect customers’ orders - exact method depends on version of PHP you are using and setting in php.ini file

Short, Medium, and Long Variables

Access form data via variables in 3 ways - nicknames:

$tireqty // short style - requires the register_globals configuration setting be turned on - off by default - insequre, not recommended, may disappear in PHP6
$_POST[‘tireqty’] // medium style - recommended - used in book
$HTTP_POST_VARS[‘tireqty’] // long style - deprecated, may be removed in future - can now be disabled via the register_long_arrays configuration directive

p24 - We can access each form field as PHP variable - name relates to form field - variable names begin with dollar sign $ - we have created short versions of the variables for ease of use. If short style used no declaration of variable needed in our script - field tireqty in the form creates the variable $tireqty in the processing script - need to turn on register_globals, off by default because of security reasons, no distinction between our created variables and those coming from users, will be mixed with our own variables - have to give them all a starting value
Medium style involves retrieving form variables from one of the arrays $_POST, $_GET, or $_REQUEST, holds the details of all the form variables - which array is used decided by used method if POST or GET - combination via REQUEST - data will be stored in chosen array - both data abailable in REQUEST
p25 - To copy the value of one variable into another use assignment operator, in PHP it's an equal sign (=)

$tireqty = $_POST[‘tireqty’]; - to avoid security issues

We place the block above or below html because it doesn't produce any output - generally placed at start of script to make them easy to find

// create short variable names
$tireqty = $_POST[‘tireqty’];
$oilqty = $_POST[‘oilqty’];
$sparkqty = $_POST[‘sparkqty’];

This code creates three new variables—$tireqty, $oilqty, and $sparkqty - sets them to contain the data sent via the POST method from the form
To make script start doing something visible, we add following lines to bottom of our PHP script:

echo '<p>Your order is as follows: </p>';
echo $tireqty.' tires<br />';
echo $oilqty.' bottles of oil<br />';
echo $sparkqty.' spark plugs<br />';

Enter in orderform1.html (created page 15) wrong data and observe what happens - you might want to add some data validation to this script later

Lesson 1.3 processorder1.php - localhost - orderform1.html

Taking data from user and outputting to browser is risky, not secure - should filter input data - more in chapter 4 and 16. Load orderform1.html :-) Works :-) Now we will study the elements of this example:

String Concatenation
p26 - echo $tireqty.' tires<br />'; - period (.) is the string concatenation operator, which adds strings (pieces of text) together - avoids writing multiple echo commands
echo "$tireqty tires<br />"; - equivalent to the first statement - replacing a variable with its contents within a string, is known as interpolation - double-quoted strings only
p27 - echo '$tireqty tires<br />'; simply sends “$tireqty tires<br /> ” to the browser - sent unaltered

Variables and Literals
Variables and strings concatenated together are different types of things - variables are symbols for data - strings are data themselves - a piece of raw data is called literal to distinguish it from a variable - PHP replaced the variable name $tireqty in the string with the value stored in the variable
Two kinds of strings mentioned already: with "double quotation marks" and ones with 'single quotation marks' - PHP tries to evaluate strings in double quotation marks - single-quoted strings are treated as true literals
Third way of specifying strings using the heredoc syntax (<<<) - end marker used to terminate the string

echo <<<theEnd
line 1
line 2
line 3
theEnd >>> PHP 2 - PHP Testing Site

The token theEnd is entirely arbitrary - it just needs to be guaranteed not to appear in the text - to close a heredoc string, place a closing token at the start of a line - heredoc strings are interpolated, like double-quoted strings

Understanding Identifiers

p28 - Identifiers are the names of variables - also of functions and classes - Rules defining valid identifiers:

• Identifiers can be of any length and can consist of letters, numbers, and underscores.
• Identifiers cannot begin with a digit.
• In PHP, identifiers are case sensitive. $tireqty is not the same as $TireQty. Trying to use them interchangeably is a common programming error. Function names are an exception to this rule:Their names can be used in any case.
• A variable can have the same name as a function.This usage is confusing, however, and should be avoided. Also, you cannot create a function with the same name as another function.

You can declare and use your own variables in addition to the variables you are passed from the HTML form. One of the features of PHP is that it does not require you to declare variables before using them. A variable is created when you first assign a value to it via the assignment operator (=).
On Bob’s site, you want to work out the total number of items ordered and the total amount payable - create two variables to store these numbers - To begin with, you need to initialize each of these variables to zero by adding these lines to the bottom of your PHP script.

$totalqty = 0;
$totalamount = 0.00;

Each of these two lines creates a variable and assigns a literal value to it. You can also assign variable values to variables, as shown in this example:

$totalqty = 0;
$totalamount = $totalqty;

Examining Variable Types
p29 - A variable’s type refers to kind of data stored in it - PHP provides set of data types - Different data can be stored in different data types

PHP’s Data Types
PHP supports the following basic data types:
Integer - Used for whole numbers - -1 0 1 etc.
Float (also called double) -Used for real numbers - 2.35 etc.
String - Used for strings of characters - "abc" etc.
Boolean - Used for true or false values - true false
Array - Used to store multiple data items (see Chapter 3, “Using Arrays”) n Object—Used for storing instances of classes (see Chapter 6)

Two special types are also available: NULL and resource - variables that have not been given a value, have been unset, or have been given the specific value NULL are of type NULL - Certain built-in functions (such as database functions) return variables that have the type resource - they represent external resources (such as database connections)

Type Strength
PHP is called weakly typed, or dynamically typed language - in most programming languages, variables can hold only one type of data - type must be declared before the variable can be used - PHP determines type by value assigned to it - can be changed:

$totalqty = 0;
$totalamount = 0.00;

Because we assigned 0, an integer, to $totalqty, this is now an integer type variable. Similarly, $totalamount is now of type float

$totalamount = ‘Hello’;

The variable $totalamount would then be of type string. PHP changes the variable type according to what is stored in it at any given time. PHP “automagically” knows what data type you put into your variable. It returns the data with the same data type when you retrieve it from the variable

Type Casting
p30 - We can pretend that a variable or value is of a different type by using a type cast, works like in C - just put the temporary type in parentheses in front of the variable

$totalqty = 0;
$totalamount = (float)$totalqty;

The second line means “Take the value stored in $totalqty, interpret it as a float, and store it in $totalamount.”The $totalamount variable will be of type float.The cast variable does not change types, so $totalqty remains of type integer - we can also use the built-in function to test and set type, which you will learn about later in this chapter.

Variable Variables
enable to change name of variable dynamically - all languages enable to change value of variable, but not many allow to change variable’s type, and even fewer allow to change variable’s name.
$varname = ‘tireqty’;
You can then use $$varname in place of $tireqty. For example, you can set the value of $tireqty as follows:
$$varname = 5;
This is exactly equivalent to
$tireqty = 5;

Instead of having to list and use each form variable separately, you can use a loop and variable to process them all automatically - example illustrating this in the section on for loops later in this chapter

Declaring and Using Constants
p31 - A constant stores a value just like a variable, but its value is set once and then cannot be changed elsewhere in the script.
Define constants using the define function:

define('TIREPRICE', 100);
define('OILPRICE', 10);
define('SPARKPRICE', 4);

Add these lines of code to your script. We now have three constants that can be used to calculate the total of the customer’s order

Use uppercase - borrowed from C, makes it easy to distinguish between variables and constants at a glance - not required but will make your code easier to read and maintain - one important difference between constants and variables is that when you refer to a constant, it does not have a dollar sign in front of it. If you want to use the value of a constant, use its name only:
PHP sets a large number of constants as its own - phpinfo(); - go phpinfo.php - This function provides a list of PHP’s predefined variables and constants, among other useful information.
Other difference between variables and constants is that constants can store only boolean, integer, float, or string data.These types are collectively known as scalar values.

Understanding Variable Scope
The term scope refers to the places within a script where a particular variable is visible. The six basic scope rules in PHP are as follows:

• Built-in superglobal variables are visible everywhere within a script.
• Constants, once declared, are always visible globally; that is, they can be used inside and outside functions.
• Global variables declared in a script are visible throughout that script, but not inside functions.
• Variables inside functions that are declared as global refer to the global variables of the same name.
• Variables created inside functions and declared as static are invisible from outside the function but keep their value between one execution of the function and the next. (We explain this idea fully in Chapter 5.)
• Variables created inside functions are local to the function and cease to exist when the function terminates.

p32 - The arrays $_GET and $_POST and some other special variables have their own scope rules. They are known as superglobals or autoglobals and can be seen everywhere, both inside and outside functions.
The complete list of superglobals is as follows:

• $GLOBALS—An array of all global variables (Like the global keyword, this allows you to access global variables inside a function - for example, as $GLOBALS[‘myvariable’].)
• $_SERVER—An array of server environment variables
• $_GET—An array of variables passed to the script via the GET method
• $_POST—An array of variables passed to the script via the POST method
• $_COOKIE—An array of cookie variables
• $_FILES—An array of variables related to file uploads
• $_ENV—An array of environment variables
• $_REQUEST—An array of all user input including the contents of input including $_GET, $_POST, and $_COOKIE (but not including $_FILES since PHP 4.3.0)
• $_SESSION—An array of session variables

We learn each of these later - all the variables we use are global by default

Using Operators

Operators are symbols that you can use to manipulate values and variables by performing an operation on them. We describe here the complete list. Already discussed assignment operator (=) and string concatenation operator (.).
In general, operators can take one, two, or three arguments, with the majority taking two. For example, the assignment operator takes two: the storage location on the left side of the = symbol and an expression on the right side.These arguments are called operands - that is, the things that are being operated upon.

Arithmetic Operators
p33 --- + - * / % (Modulus) --- $a = 27; $b = 10; $result = $a%$b; --- The value stored in the $result variable is the remainder when you divide 27 by 10 --- that is, 7
p34 - You should note that arithmetic operators are usually applied to integers or doubles. If you apply them to strings, PHP will try to convert the string to a number. If it contains an e or an E, it will be read as being in scientific notation and converted to a float; otherwise, it will be converted to an integer. PHP will look for digits at the start of the string and use them as the value; if there are none, the value of the string will be zero.

String Operators
Only one, the concatenation operator (.)
$a = “Bob’s “; $b = “Auto Parts”; $result = $a.$b;
The $result variable now contains the string “Bob’s Auto Parts" - Go PHP 4 - PHP Testing Site

Assignment Operators
(=) always read "is set to" - $totalqty = 0; - if we call it equals, we will get confused - discuss later

Values Returned from Assignment
Using assignment operator returns overall value similar to other operators - Instead of $a + $b we can write
$a = 0; $b = 6 + ($a = 5); // sets $b to 11 - The value of the whole assignment statement is the value that is assigned to the left operand - you can use parentheses to increase the precedence of a subexpression

Combined Assignment Operators
$a += 5; same as $a = $a + 5; --- all combined ass. operators += -= *= /= %= .=

Pre- and Post-Increment and Decrement
The pre- and post-increment (++) and decrement (--) operators are similar to the += and -= operators, but with a couple of twists - all the increment operators have two effects: they increment and assign a value $a=4; echo ++$a; --- pre-increment operator - first incrementing $a by 1 and second, returning the incremented value
$a=4; echo $a++; --- post-increment operator - first, the value of $a is returned and printed, and second, it is incremented
Similar for the -- operator: $a=4; echo --$a; --- $a=4; echo $a--;

Reference Operator
(&, an ampersand) - $a = 5; $b = $a; --- These code lines make a second copy of the value in $a and store it in $b. If you subsequently change the value of $a, $b will not change:
$a = 7; // $b will still be 5

$a = 5;
$b = &$a;
$a = 7; // $a and $b are now both 7

We can change this by unsetting one of them as follows:
Unsetting does not change the value of $b (7) but does break the link between $a and the value 7 stored in memory.

Comparison Operators
Expressions using these operators return either of the logical values true or false depending on the result of the comparison.

The Equal Operator
$a == $b --- (shows 1 if true - nothing if false?) - Make shure to use the one you want: $a = $b makes left side to right side and is true if nonzero - Using the assignment operator rather than the equals comparison operator is an easy mistake to make, and you will probably make it many times in your programming career.

Other Comparison Operators
== Equals
=== Identical
!= Not equal
!== Not identical
<> Not equal (comparison operator)
< Less than
> Greater than (comparison operator) <= Less than or equal to
>= Greater than or equal to

One to note is the identical operator (===), which returns true only if the two operands are both equal and of the same type. For example, 0==0 will be true, but 0===0 will not because one zero is an integer and the other zero is a string. Why?

Logical Operators
! --- NOT --- write: !$b --- Returns true if $b is false and vice versa
&& --- AND --- write: $a && $b --- Returns true if both $a and $b are true; otherwise false
|| --- OR --- write: $a || $b --- Returns true if either $a or $b or both are true; otherwise false
and --- AND --- write: $a and $b --- Same as &&, but with lower precedence
or --- OR --- write: $a or $b --- Same as ||, but with lower precedence
xor --- XOR --- write: $a x or $b --- Returns true if either $a or $b is true, and false if they are both true or both false

The and and or operators have lower precedence than the && and || operators

Bitwise Operators
The bitwise operators enable you to treat an integer as the series of bits used to repre- sent it.You probably will not find a lot of use for the bitwise operators in PHP

& --- Bitwise AND --- $a & $b --- Bits set in $a and $b are set in the result
| --- Bitwise OR --- $a | $b --- Bits set in $a or $b are set in the result
~ --- Bitwise NOT --- ~$a --- Bits set in $a are not set in the result and vice versa
^ --- Bitwise XOR --- $a ^ $b --- Bitssetin$aor$bbutnotinbothareset in the result
<< --- Left shift --- $a << $b --- Shifts $a left $b bits
>> --- Right shift --- $a >> $b --- Shifts $a right $b bits

Other Operators
p39 - comma operator (,) separates function arguments and other lists of items - normally used incidentally - operators new and -> are used to instantiate a class and access class members, respectively - more in chapter 6

The Ternary Operator
(?:) similar to the expression version of an if-else statement - discussed later
condition ? value if true : value if false --- example:
($grade >= 50 ? ‘Passed’ : ‘Failed’)

The Error Suppression Operator

(@) can be used in front of any expression - that is, anything that generates or has a value - for example,
$a = @(57/0);
Without the @ operator, this line generates a divide-by-zero warning. With the operator included, the error is suppressed - then you need to write some error handling code to check when a warning has occurred - if you have PHP set up with the track_errors feature enabled in php.ini, the error message will be stored in the global variable $php_errormsg

The Execution Operator
pair of operators - pair of backticks (``) - usually located on the same key as the ~ (tilde) symbol on your keyboard
PHP attempts to execute whatever is contained between the backticks as a command at the server’s command line.The value of the expression is the output of the command. For example, under Unix-like operating systems, you can use
$out = `ls -la`; --- on Windows: $out = `dir c:`;
echo '<pre>'.$out.'</pre>';
Either version obtains a directory listing and stores it in $out. It can then be echoed to the browser or dealt with in any other way. There are other ways of executing commands on the server. We cover them in Chapter 19, “Interacting with the File System and the Server.”

Array Operators
p40 - array element operators ([ ]) enable you to access array elements.You can also use the => operator in some array contextshes - these operators are covered in Chapter 3

+ Union - $a+$b - Returns an array containing everything in $a and $b
== Equality - $a==$b - Returns true if $a and $b have the same key and pairs
=== Identity - $a === $b - Returns true if $a and $b have the same key and value pairs the same order
!= Inequality - $a!=$b - Returns true if $a and $b are not equal
<> Inequality - $a<>$b - Returns true if $a and $b are not equal
!== Non-identity - $a !== $b - Returns true if $a and $b are not identical

All have equivalent operators that work on scalar variables --- + performs addition on scalar types and union on arrays - cannot usefully compare arrays to scalar types

The Type Operator
instanceof operator is used in object-oriented programming - more in chapter 6 - allows to check whether an object is an instance of a particular class

class sampleClass{};
$myObject = new sampleClass();
if ($myObject instanceof sampleClass)
echo “myObject is an instance of sampleClass”;

Working Out the Form Totals

p41 - Now ready to work out totals and tax on Bob’s order form - add following code to bottom of our PHP script:

$totalqty = 0;
$totalqty = $tireqty + $oilqty + $sparkqty;
echo "Items ordered: ".$totalqty."<br />";
$totalamount = 0.00;

define('TIREPRICE', 100);
define('OILPRICE', 10);
define('SPARKPRICE', 4);
$totalamount = $tireqty * TIREPRICE
+ $oilqty * OILPRICE
+ $sparkqty * SPARKPRICE;

echo "Subtotal: $".number_format($totalamount,2)."<br />";

$taxrate = 0.10; // local sales tax is 10%
$totalamount = $totalamount * (1 + $taxrate);
echo "Total including tax: $".number_format($totalamount,2)."<br />";

processorder2 Lesson 1.4 processorder2.php - localhost - orderform2.html

Code uses operators addition (+) - multiplication (*) - string concatenation operator (.) - also uses the number_format() function to format totals as strings with two decimal places - this is a function from PHP’s Math library

Understanding Precedence and Associativity
p42 - In general, operators have a set precedence, or order, in which they are evaluated. Operators also have an associativity, which is the order in which operators of the same precedence are evaluated.This order is generally left to right (called left for short), right to left (called right for short), or not relevant.
Table shows operator precedence and associativity in PHP - operators with lowest precedence are at the top - precedence increases as you go down the table:

p43 - Associativity (left/right) - Operators
left ,
left or
left xor
left and
right print
left = += -= *= /= .= %= &= |= ^= ~= <<= >>=
left ? :
left ||
left &&
left |
left ^
left &
n/a == != === !==
n/a < <= > >=
left << >>
left + - .
left * / %
right ! ~ ++ -- (int) (double) (string) (array) (object) @
right []
n/a new
n/a ()

Additional operator with the highest precedence: plain old parentheses () - raises precedence of whatever is contained within them - in this way we can deliberately manipulate or work around the precedence rules when we need to -
$totalamount = $totalamount * (1 + $taxrate); // correct
$totalamount = $totalamount * 1 + $taxrate; // false result!

We can use as many sets of parentheses as we like in an expression - the innermost set of parentheses is evaluated first

Have not yet covered the print language construct, which is equivalent to echo - both constructs generate output
We generally use echo in this book, but you can use print if you find it more readable. Neither print nor echo is really a function, but both can be called as a function with parameters in parentheses. Both can also be treated as an operator: You simply place the string to work with after the keyword echo or print. Calling print as a function causes it to return a value (1).This capability might be useful if you want to generate output inside a more complex expression but does mean that print is marginally slower than echo.

Using Variable Functions
p44 - PHP provides a library of functions that enable you to manipulate and test vari- ables in different ways

Testing and Setting Variable Types
Most variable functions testing the type of function - The two most general are gettype() and settype() - have the following function prototypes, what arguments expect and what they return:
string gettype(mixed var);
bool settype(mixed var, string type);
To use gettype(), you pass it a variable. It determines the type and returns a string containing the type name: bool, int, double (for floats), string, array, object, resource, or NULL. It returns unknown type if it is not one of the standard types.
To use settype(), you pass it a variable for which you want to change the type and a string containing the new type for that variable from the previous list. Arguments for which many types are permitted are shown with the pseudo-typemixed” - names it also mixed type - such data type isn't existing
$a = 56;
echo gettype($a).'<br />';
settype($a, 'double');
echo gettype($a).'<br />';
echo writes first integer - after settype writes double
p45 - PHP also provides some specific type-testing functions. Each takes a variable as an argument and returns either true or false.The functions are:

• is_array()—Checks whether the variable is an array
• is_double(), is_float(), is_real() (All the same function)—Checks whether the variable is a float
• is_long(), is_int(), is_integer() (All the same function)—Checks whether the variable is an integer
• is_string()—Checks whether the variable is a string
• is_bool()—Checks whether the variable is a boolean
• is_object()—Checks whether the variable is an object
• is_resource()—Checks whether the variable is a resource
• is_null()—Checks whether the variable is null
• is_scalar()—Checks whether the variable is a scalar, that is, an integer, boolean, string, or float
• is_numeric()—Checks whether the variable is any kind of number or a numeric string
• is_callable()—Checks whether the variable is the name of a valid function

Testing Variable Status
PHP has several functions for testing the status of a variable. The first is isset(), which has the following prototype:
bool isset(mixed var);[;mixed var[,...]])
Wipe a variable out of existence using its companion function, unset(), which has the following prototype:
void unset(mixed var);[;mixed var[,...]])
This function gets rid of the variable it is passed.
The empty() function checks to see whether a variable exists and has a nonempty, nonzero value; it returns true or false accordingly. It has the following prototype:
bool empty(mixed var);
Add to script temorarily:

echo 'isset($tireqty): '.isset($tireqty).'<br />'; // added from p45 - then muted :-)
echo 'isset($nothere): '.isset($nothere).'<br />';
echo 'empty($tireqty): '.empty($tireqty).'<br />';
echo 'empty($nothere): '.empty($nothere).'<br />'; // mute end

processorder2 Lesson 1.5 processorder2.php - localhost - orderform2.html // first unmute the script p45 :-)

The variable $tireqty should return 1 (true) from isset() regardless of what value you entered in that form field and regardless of whether you entered a value at all. Whether it is empty() depends on what you entered in it. The variable $nothere does not exist, so it generates a blank (false) result from isset() and a 1 (true) result from empty(). These functions are handy when you need to make sure that the user filled out the appropriate fields in the form.

Reinterpreting Variables
p46 - You can achieve the equivalent of casting a variable by calling a function. The following three functions can be useful for this task:
int intval(mixed var[, int base]);
float floatval(mixed var);
string strval(mixed var);

Making Decisions with Conditionals

Control structures are the structures within a language that allow you to control the flow of execution through a program or script. You can group them into conditionals (or branching) structures and repetition structures (or loops). If you want to sensibly respond to your users’ input, your code needs to be able to make decisions.The constructs that tell your program to make decisions are called conditionals.

if Statements
if( $totalqty == 0 )
echo 'You did not order anything on the previous page!<br />';
echo is executed if condition true

Code Blocks
group a number of statements together as a block {}

if ($totalqty == 0) {
echo '<p style="color:red">';
echo 'You did not order anything on the previous page!';
echo '</p>';

When the condition is true, all three lines are executed. When the condition is false, all three lines are ignored
Write readable even if not necessary - statements are indented

else Statements
if () {...
} else {...}


Lesson 1.6 freight.html - freight.php

elseif Statements
switch Statements
Comparing the Different Conditionals
Repeating Actions Through Iteration
while Loops
for and foreach Loops
do...while Loops

Breaking Out of a Control Structure or Script
Employing Alternative Control Structure Syntax
Using declare
p57 - End of Chapter 1 :-)


2 - Storing and Retrieving Data

p59 - ...

Storing and Retrieving Bob's Order
We use slightly different orderform with added Shipping Address - orderform.html - processorder.php - vieworders.php - path /02/
The form field for the shipping address is called address.This gives you a variable you can access as $_REQUEST[‘address’] or $_POST[‘address’] or $_GET[‘address’], depending on the form submission METHOD. (See Chapter 1, “PHP Crash Course,” for details.) In this chapter, you write each order that comes in to the same file. Then you construct a web interface for Bob’s staff to view the orders that have been received.

Processing Files
p61 - Writing data to a file requires three steps:
1. Open the file. If the file doesn’t already exist, you need to create it.
2. Write the data to the file.
3. Close the file.
Similarly, reading data from a file takes three steps:
1. Open the file. If you cannot open the file (for example, if it doesn’t exist), you need to recognize this and exit gracefully.
2. Read data from the file.
3. Close the file.

Opening a File
Use the fopen() function - when you open the file, you need to specify how you intend to use it - known as the file mode

Using fopen() to Open a File
p62 - ...

Opening Files Through FTP or HTTP
p64 - In addition to opening local files for reading and writing, you can open files via FTP, HTTP, and other protocols using fopen().You can disable this capability by turning off the allow_url_fopen directive in the php.ini file. If you have trouble opening remote files with fopen(), check your php.ini file - read php.ini online -

<<< Current Working Area


3 - Using Arrays

p81 - ...

4 - String Manipulation and Regular Expressions

p107 - ...

5 - Reusing Code and Writing Functions

p133 - ...

6 - Object-Oriented PHP

p159 - ...

7 - Error and Exception Handling

p193 - ...


II - Using MySQL

Chapter 8-13

p207 - ...

8 - Designing Your Web Database

p207 - ...


III - E-commerce and Security

Chapter 14-18

p327 - ...


IV - Advanced PHP Techniques

Chapter 19-24

p431 - ...


V - Building Practical PHP and MySQL Projects

Chapter 25-34

p535 - ...

34 - Building Web 2.0 Applications with Ajax

p855 - ...


VI - Appendixes

A Installing PHP and MySQL

p889 - ...

B Web Resources

p907 - ...




p969 - What's on the CD? - Windows - Linux/Unix

p970 - License Agreement - End of book

More coming soon :-)

PHP Workshop

• Learn HTML CSS - prove it - Web Design Workshop
• Install Apache PHP MySQL - test it
• Write a HTML form - connect it to a PHP file - prove it
echo '<p>♡ Hello World! Welcome to our PHP Workshop ♡</p>';

Work out our PHP Workshop on top of this site :-)

Good luck :-)

Testing Area



Hamsterrad - Man muss aussteigen aus seinen kleinen eigenen Gewohnheits-Kreisen


abbreviate - abkürzen, verkürzen, kürzen
arbitrary - beliebig, frei wählbar ...
concatenate - verbinden, verketten, verknüpfen, aneinanderhängen ...
convenient - geeignet, praktisch ...
evaluate - auswerten, berechnen, beurteilen ...
gibberish - Gequassel, Kauderwelsch, kaudern
indented - eingerückt
overall value - Gesamtwert
precedence - Priorität, Rangordnung, Vortritt etc.
preciding - vorangehend, vorausgehend, vorhergehend, vorstehend - in the last perceding paragraph - im letzten Absatz
take precedence over - Vorrang haben
refer - bezeihen auf, zuschreiben, nennen, berichten, auf etwas anspielen
resemble - gleichen, ähnlich sein ...
retrieve - abfragen ...
struck - angeschlagen ... erschlagen
token - Zeichen, Merkmal, Anzeichen, Kürzel, Bon, Spielmarke, Spielstein ...
typo - Schreibfehler, Druckfehler
unintelligible - unverständlich, unfasslich
unprecedented - beispiellos, unerhört, noch nie dagewesen
verbose - wortreich

PQ - PHP MySQL Web Development
WW - Webdesign Workshop

Building a drag-drop shopping cart
10 jQuery Shopping Cart Plugins


2014-4-1, 16:50 Bln - VE FO - AN Grafik Präs. fertig mit fremden Bildern ok + gute Texte oder Buch Seitenbeispiele FO hilft englisch - VE GO FI Kinder HH Charity PS O - FO WD dann parallel: PHP MySQL 2 Wo - JS iQuery 1 Wo - HTML5 CSS3 1 Wo - = 4 Wochen +/- 1 Wo Puffer - abzügl. TS eV PD IDL eG O Coaching PS P Kinder WD Aufträge oder Jobs etc. - Tag = 16 Arbeitsstunden Wo = 7 Tage - WD + Grafik Aufträge können ab sofort auf IDL Webdesign Grundlage angenommen und ausgeführt werden je nach Einschränkung mit Absagen oder Aufschieben Warten oder Delegation - AD sollte durch VE AN TO JU KI getätigt werden solange vorübergehend bis FO übernimmt

Haus Berlin
1 - 99T - 300/1.406 qm - 6 Zi - Bezug sofort - Wernsdorfer Str. 44, 12527 Berlin (Schmöckwitz)
2 - 125T - 400/1.319 qm - 12524 Berlin-Treptow-Köpenick OT Altglienicke (Bohnsdorf)
3 - 180T - 201/962 qm - 8 Zi - 12526 Berlin (Bohnsdorf)
4 - 185T - 200/760 qm - 5 Zi - 12526 Berlin (Bohnsdorf)
5 - 163T - 163/622 qm - 5 Zi - 12355 Berlin (Rudow)
6 - 152T - 152/791 qm - Oberspreestraße 97, 12489 Berlin (Adlershof)
7 - 180T - 201/962 qm - 8 Zi - 12526 Berlin

Berlin bis 2.3 Mio €

8 - 1.99M - 588/1.677 qm - 8 Zi -


Session 10 - 2014-4-7, Bln, 10:10-13:45=3:35 PHP p39
Session 9 - 2014-4-6, Bln, 14:20-14:55=0:35 PQ p29 - 15:55-17:10=1:15 - 19:00-19:45=0:45 - 20:05-0:10=4:05 p34-36 = 0:35+1:15+0:45+4:05 = 6:40 total time

Session 8 - 2014-4-5, Bln, 18:25-19:40 PQ p28 - (11:30-13:20 + 15:15-16:30 u.a. + 19:40-5:20 PS + PD SI + Kinder) = 1:15 total time

Session 7 - 2014-4-4, Bln, 5:05-6:00=0:55 Editor compare + check Text Wrangler - Sublime - Komodo etc. - 6:00-7:40=1:40 WR Sessions time :-) - 23:00- 0:15=1:15 PQ p27 = 0:55+1:40+1:15 = 3:50 total time

Session 6 - Thu, 2014-4-3, Berlin, 6:00-7:35=1:35 p24, 12:00-13:30=1:30 p25 (GA Operation) - 16:05-16:40=0:35 processorder1.php - 19:30-23:25=3:55 orderform1.html works :-) - 23:25-23:55=0:30 = 1:35+1:30+0:35+3:55+0:30 = 8:05 total time

Session 5 - Wed, 2014-4-2, Bln, 2:35-6:00=3:25 WD LR - Mac Localhost zeigt nicht mehr an ... :-(( Recherche IN - 11:55-12:10=0:15 VE RP - 13:15-13:55=0:40 Localhost repair :-) Fehler: SSL install - undo :-) 13:55-17:35=3:40 PQ LR p20 ♡ - 18:55-21:10=2:15 LR PQ - 21:35-22:40=1:05 PQ LR p28 - 23:05-0:15=1:10 PQ Ges. Buch R + check = 3:25+0:15+0:40+3:40+2:15+1:05+1:10 = 12:30 total time

Session 4 - Tue, 2014-4-1, Bln, 15:15-17:00=1:45 VE Plan FO 1 Wo HTML CSS - 1 Wo JavaScript iQuery - 2 Wo PHP MySQL - Tag = 16 Arbeitsstunden WD - Wo = 7 Tage :-) ♡ - also 4 Wo +/- 1 Wo Puffer (HTML CSS Abzug, kann auch nebenher gemacht werden - oder sonst. Abzüge wenn schneller LR :-) - 18:00-18:25_0:25 RP AN - 18:25-20:20=1:55 PQ (= PHP and MySQL Web Development :-) Ch 1 = 1:45+0:25+1:55 = 4:05 total time

Session 3 - Mon, 2014-3-31, Bln, 12:05-13:30=1:25 RP VE AN PHP INstall etc. - 13:30-17:10=3:40 Install SSL failed - IN WD books + personalities - 17:30-20:25=2:55 PHP books R - 21:25-2:55=5:30 PHP & MySQL WR LR Introduction + Ch 1 Start ♡ - 2:55-7:00=4:05 HR YT Luke + Laura about PHP and MySQL ♡ - JSQ WR - Sites WD TW Top + YT WD Harvard Course ♡ - 7:00-7:40=0:40 RP VE AN = 1:25+3:40+2:55+5:30+4:05+0:40 = 17:55 total time

Session 2 - Sun, 2014-3-30, Bln, 12:00-13:10=1:10 VE RP Computersprachen Entscheidung PHP LR - 13:20-14:05=0:45 RP AN - 14:05-15:30=1:25 R PHP and MySQL Web Development ♡ - 17:40-18:20=0:40 RP VE AN - 18:20-19:00=0:40 Install Apache ♡ - 20:10-3:40=7:30 Install PHP + MySQL ♡ = 1:10+0:45+1:25+0:40+0:40+7:30 = 12:10 total time

Session 1 - Sat, 2014-3-29, Berlin, 9:15-11:00=1:45 LR JavaScript & jQuery Ch. 2 ♡ - 13:15-15:00=1:45 JSQ LR AJAX AMP etc. - 15:00-17:40=2:40 p351 Need to LR PHP - Wikipedia & books research - 17:40-20:40=3:00 Rasmus Lerdorf On PHP - YT - PHP Testing Site online ♡ - 20:40-23:30=2:50 Demo PHP VE AN + R PHP books ♡ - 2:00-5:30=3:30 Best Webdesign IN WR HP + Sublime Editor = 1:45+1:45+2:40+3:00+2:50+3:30 = 15:30 total time

Feroniba Ramin Hassani - IDL eG

More coming soon :-)

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